Norwegian theory is limited in fishery resources because it has only 385.178 square kilometers of land area and 25.148 kilometers of coastline. However, the country located in the Arctic Circle is the world's second largest exporter of fishery products after China.
What is its secret? A simple answer: good and integrated fisheries management.
Norway is the first country in the world to implement a trawl permit. In 1973, when the crisis hit the offshore fishery resources, the annual catch fell. The Oslo government has implemented a licensing scheme to limit the number and size of fishing boats with fences, purse seines or shrimp trawls. Therefore, when the 200-mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ) was enacted in 1977, most of the Norwegian coastal fleets were arranged with rules and were not free to expand.
The next step taken by the Oslo government is to adopt IQ quotas (individual non-transferable quotations). In 1990, when the catch of squid fell, the total quota was cut and the fishermen were divided into two groups. They all have a limited quota.
The Oslo government has also enacted another environmental protection policy, such as prohibiting the dumping of fish into the sea. All catch must first be brought to the land and then carefully calculated by the official. If they are discarded, the license will be revoked immediately.
In Norway, fishing permits are very expensive (new entrants can be used free of charge, so the fisheries sector does not lack human resources). By doing so, fishermen or fisheries companies are afraid of the risk of losing their licenses.
Norwegian fisheries management also has a long tradition. For more than a century, people have actively participated directly in this extractive industry. Stakeholders not only participate in the determination of quotas, but also become members of official delegations, negotiating with neighbouring countries with large amounts of fishery resources.
In order to determine quotas, the Oslo government established an independent agency to continuously monitor fish stocks and the number of possible catches. For each commercial fish, the quantities are different from each other and the minimum size is taken as an appropriate standard. The number of each fishing season may vary.
Based on the above facts, it is no wonder that Norway has become the world's second largest exporter of fishery products. Other countries should learn from Norway how to properly manage their fishery resources.